Virtual Reality Training System for Laparoscopic Surgery Anytime/Anywhere


This section presents a hardware / software simulation environment that is suitable for surgical skills training anytime / anywhere. It combines the advantages of physical hardware and output tasks with virtual environments flexibility. This is further enhanced by the implementation of web-based training feedback which is accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive method of achieving competence in core tasks that could be applied across a spectrum of first responder trainees from field medical personnel to physicians. This has resulted in a strong training tool for the acquisition of surgical skills associated.

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Over the past twenty years, greater use has been made of computer-assisted training to help students improve technical skills and increase their progression rate during the training process. The role of simulators as complementary to traditional learning methods is a fundamental part of today’s training and learning activities. They showed the equivalent of 2-h work in virtual simulation with 1 h very. Similar systems can be put in place in medical settings to help medical trainees gain surgical skills in a safe environment with less risk to patients.

Apart from the medical community and the aviation industry, the need to use computer simulations for training is evolving. From high-loyalty human mannequins to compiling training simulators (eg, simulation or chest tube simulators), simulation technologies are being developed for use and are commercially available in the market. Simulation in medical training serves the important objective of generating well-qualified trainees within a short period of time, ensuring that everyone has skills readiness status and enabling them to maintain that skill level at all times. Simulation is also cheaper than living animal training and provides a more accessible and repeatable environment in which trainees can practice.

Minimal invasive surgery (MIS) has a demanding market for virtual training, as one of the most commonly used types of surgery in the hospital, particularly in cancer surgery and surgeries in abdominal and pelvic regions. A variety of simulators are used in the laparoscopic surgery training process prepared by the trainees in relation to the underlying difficulties of this surgery, including difficult three-dimensional modeling, precise hand-eye coordination, and a reversible instrument fulcrum effect. The benefits of simulating surgery in a computerized virtual environment offer benefits as immediate feedback on important factors including finishing time, tool path, and movement economy. This feedback can enable trainees to become more independent from trained experts during the learning process.

However, current surgical simulation devices are not portable, and are not able to use them in remote areas. These are the extremely critical aspects of medical trainees to maximize invasive surgical skills readiness. The cost of high-loyalty simulation equipment limits the amount institutions can pay. This may result in less access, restricting the number of repetitions that each trainee can make. This is one of the main problems with many laparoscopic surgical simulators. The more practice / rehearsal of the additional skills gained by the trainee in general. It showed that the amount of time dedicated to basic skills to learn laparoscopic skills has a direct impact in obtaining fast in the operating room. However, a limited number of simulators, even in large medical schools, prevents trainees from practicing simulators to the extent necessary.

This can be overcome by low-cost portable simulators used to train residents in basic skills and promote their laparoscopic technique. However, the main disadvantage is the lack of feedback. Nothing is monitored during the assignment and no data is submitted to the trainee or tutor on completion of the task. One way to address this lack of feedback loops is to close the training loop using computers and the Internet. The use of computer-based learning was developed in three main directions: computer-based training, web-based training, and learning management systems. Computer-based training can promote quality training and students to try a new pedagogical approach, which helps them to learn different skills depending on their needs. Easy access and the allowance for trainees to learn independently is some of the main reasons why a lot of training is moving from the traditional option under the direction of a tutor towards a web-based educational approach.  Based on the learning management system, instructors are able to monitor the progress of trainees without being physically located near them. This remote monitoring makes this approach beneficial for applications and gives the ability to train from best locations.

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