Types of water filters by cleaning method 

A device  for purifying water from mechanical, insoluble particles, impurities, chlorine and its derivatives, as well as from viruses, bacteria, heavy metals, etc. Water filter for home is used to produce drinking water can be divided into three categories – the simplest household filters, medium purification and household filters of the highest degree of purification. To the best  (highest) degree of purification includes cleaning by reverse osmosis household filters – the highest quality and advanced technology to date. The simplest include jugs and nozzles.

Types of water filters by cleaning method 

Clay vessel with a “filter”. Ancient Egypt , I Dynasty. Pitrie Museum , London

Mechanical 

The water purification process has several stages. First, mechanical impurities are removed, that is, substances that are in the water in the form of a suspension, not a solution. To remove large particles from the water (over 5-50 micrometers), strainers or coarse filters or pre-filters connected to the water supply are used. To remove coarse impurities in multi-stage filters, winding cartridges made of polypropylene or polymer foam are used. These filters are designed to protect plumbing and household appliances.

Ion Exchange

Ion exchange as a method of water treatment has been known for a long time and has been used (and is now being used) mainly to soften water. Previously, natural ion exchangers (sulfonates, zeolites) were used to implement this method. However, with the advent of synthetic ion exchange resins, the efficiency of using ion exchange for water treatment has increased dramatically. From the point of view of removing iron from water, the fact that cation exchangers are capable of removing not only calcium and magnesium ions from water, but also other divalent metals, and hence dissolved divalent iron, is important. Moreover, theoretically, the concentration of iron that ion-exchange resins can handle is very high. Another advantage of ion exchange is that it is “not afraid” of the faithful companion of iron – manganese, which greatly complicates the operation of systems based on the use of oxidation methods. The main advantage of ion exchange is that iron and manganese, which are in a dissolved state, can be removed from water. That is, the need for such a capricious and “dirty” (due to the need to wash out the rust) stage, such as oxidation, completely disappears.

 Distillation

Benefits:

  • removes bacteria, viruses, parasites, solids and heavy metals.
  • Distillation  is the process of collecting condensate from evaporated water. When used properly, distillation provides clean and safe water.

The process of distilling seawater into fresh water was used by the ancient Greeks from 200 C . Many cultures throughout history have used distillation as an effective way to produce clean drinking water. Although the materials used in the distillation process have changed over time, science has remained unchanged. She argues that distillation is a purification method that has stood the test of time. The simplest materials needed to distill water: a kettle, a condensate container, a steam pipe and a heat source. The market also has special household water filter for the home. After the water boils, the steam passes through the tube and, cooling, turns into water in a new container. Since pollutants cannot exist in the gaseous form of water, the resulting “new” water will be free of bacteria, viruses, parasites, mechanical particles and chemicals.

Disadvantages:

  • slow and inconvenient way;
  • purified water is deprived of the necessary minerals for the human body.

Since distillation is a very effective cleaning process, it deprives water of not only pollutants, but also the minerals our body needs. Therefore, if you decide to use distilled water for drinking, you will have to add natural minerals to it, or provide them with dietary supplements. No matter how good the current water treatment technologies are, each has its own drawbacks and limitations. Some are too expensive, others have a small resource, others require constant efforts in daily maintenance, in the fourth microorganisms multiply rapidly, fifths simply cannot provide more and more stringent requirements for the degree of purification, etc.  The most effective approach is to use several filtering methods at the same time This is the only way to guarantee that you and your family will consume clean and safe water. The selection of methods for each individual home, office or production facility depends on many factors. The source of water and its physicochemical properties, as well as the location of the consumer and the condition of the water supply networks, are of importance.

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