Comparisons With Non-Specific Drugs
Even though drugs can exert useful effects through the drug-focused mechanism, a drug that believes to have disease-specific effects should, by definition, be more effective than a drug that produces only nonspecific effects. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
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That is, a drug considered “antidepressant” should be superior to substances that are not supposed to act on the biological basis of depression. And drugs that exert effects on the presumed basis of psychotic symptoms should be superior to those that do not act in these processes.
Comparative Studies For Antidepressants
However, existing comparative studies do not strongly support this specificity. For example, numerous drugs not commonly thought of as antidepressants shows in randomized trials to be superior to placebo, or equivalent to standard antidepressants. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
The list includes substances with mechanisms of action as diverse as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and stimulants. Furthermore, antidepressants themselves come from a wide variety of chemical families and cause a wide variety of physiological effects. This makes it difficult to believe that they share a common underlying pathway of action.
There is also little evidence that so-called antipsychotic drugs are superior to other types of sedatives. Two of the earliest studies of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia found greater benefit for people taking chlorpromazine compared with those taking barbiturates.
The most common drug treatment before the introduction of antipsychotics. However, assessments among antipsychotics and benzodiazepines have given varied results. With the benzodiazepine found to be equal or superior in many of them. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
However, antipsychotics might be superior to other sedatives based on the drug-centric model, as postulated by investigators at the start of their use. In other words, rather than reversing an underlying disease process, antipsychotics might be particularly effective because of the specific neurological condition they induce.
Only comparisons with drugs that produce a similar state through mechanisms not thought to be involved in the biological basis of psychosis could confirm that they have a disease-specific action. Such comparisons are hard to come by, but an old opium trial is interesting in this regard, because opiates induce a characteristic state of emotional detachment.
Treating People With Antipsychotics
The trial found no difference between opium and chlorpromazine in treating people with acute schizophrenia. Therefore, in general, the evidence that antipsychotics are more effective than other sedatives is inconclusive. And their superiority over sedatives with similar effects in attenuating emotions not demonstrates. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
Lithium As Sedating Drug
Lithium often says to be the best example of a specific psychiatric drug. However, its psychoactive effects of sedation and cognitive slowing, well-documented in volunteers. This could easily provide an alternative explanation for its effects. Several comparative studies have found that lithium is not superior to other sedating drugs.
Such as antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, in the treatment of acute mania or affective psychosis. One such study claimed to show that although there was no difference in overall efficacy between lithium and pimozide in people with mania, when compared in other forms of psychosis, lithium was more effective for manic symptoms in a sample of people with a variety of diagnoses.
Comparison Between Both Drugs
However, the analysis is complex and a direct comparison between both drugs not makes. Additional study found no change between lithium and chlorpromazine for characteristic manic indications. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
Animal models of mental disorders develops to find specific drugs. The validity of animal models is highly questionable. But if they were able to select specific drugs, some support added to a disease-focused model of drug action.
However, in addition to obtaining different results in different research centers, animal models of depression show positive results for many substances. That not considers antidepressants, including amphetamines. But also opiates and antipsychotics. In addition, molecules considered to be antidepressants, such as SSRIs, do not usually obtain positive results.
Animal models of psychosis include amphetamine-induced stereotypies (repetitive stereotyped movements), considered a model for psychosis because prolonged use of stimulants is also known to cause psychosis. Dopamine recognizes to be complex in the induction of stimulant-made movement syndromes. Although other neuro-transmitters may also be involved. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
Therefore, it is not surprising that dopamine blocking drugs reduce stereotypies. However, this test considers more of a test of dopaminergic blockade than of antipsychotic action. And, in fact, atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine. These have weaker effects on dopaminergic blockade, are not very effective in suppressing stereotypies.
The use of medicines according to a model centered on the drug
Since the disease-focused model lacks conclusive support. The drug-focused model of pharmacological action accepts as possible. Nobody disputes that psychiatric drug modify normal mental functions. Even though little attention pays to these psychoactive effects.
It would be implausible to think that these effects have no impact on the thinking and behavior that constitute the diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Psychiatric Treatment Center in Lahore.
A drug-centric approach to psychiatric medication use challenges the foundations of much current psychiatric knowledge and practice. Instead of prescribing treatments for diagnoses, psychiatrists should see themselves as prescribing drugs that produce certain pharmacologically induced states.
Conditions That Drugs Induce
Which those who take them may or may not find helpful. To do this well, prescribers need comprehensive information about the type of conditions that different psychiatric drugs induce. And the real consequences of taking them for short and long periods. Only then will they be able to help patients decide whether taking the medicine does better than harm.
Unfortunately, research on psychiatric medications limited by the disease-centered model perspective. So limited information is available on the full range of their effects. We recognize little about what it senses like to take them. And physiological and biochemical research has focused on their effects on suspected disease mechanisms.
Such as dopamine or serotonergic receptor levels. And ignored the many other effects they produce these medications. Research on the long-term consequences of the use of these medications. Including the rate at which the body develops tolerance to their various effects. And is lacking the duration of withdrawal symptoms and nature.
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