1. what is diabetes and how does it affect a person?
Diabetes mellitus is an abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia.
It is associated with a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin secretion, as well as varying degrees of peripheral resistance to insulin action.
Two types are most commonly distinguished:
Type 1 diabetes results in absolute insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes ->90% and is characterized by hyperglycemia and varying degrees of insulin resistance and deficiency.
Normal – Fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least eight hours.
Diabetes mellitus – The diagnosis of diabetes can be established with any of the following criteria (Table 2) :
Fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).
A1C ≥6.5 percent (47.5 mmol/mol).
Two-hour blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during an OGTT.
Random (or “occasional”) blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) when symptoms are present.
How often should one get checked for diabetes?
A fasting blood glucose value <100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) or A1C <5.7% should be considered normal. We suggest that patients with these results be retested at three-year intervals.
For those with borderline results (fasting blood glucose of 100 to 125 mg/dL or A1C of 5.7 to 6.4 percent), we suggest follow-up every one to two years.
The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed if both A1C and fasting blood glucose are above their diagnostic thresholds, if two consecutive A1C levels are ≥6.5 percent, or if two consecutive fasting blood glucose levels are ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).
Testing should be considered in overweight or obese adults (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or ≥23 kg/m2 in Asian Americans) who have one or more of the following risk factors:
First-degree relative with diabetes
High-risk race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander).
History of CVD
Hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment for hypertension).
HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans)
Patients with prediabetes (A1C ≥5.7% [39 mmol/mol], IGT or IFG) should be tested annually.
Women diagnosed with GDM should be tested for life at least every 3 years.
For all other patients, screening should begin at age 45.
If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least every 3 years, with more frequent testing considered based on initial results and risk status.
How should a person with diabetes monitor their diabetes and keep it under control?
A person with diabetes should develop a management plan with his or her treating physician that is appropriate for his or her lifestyle, incorporating the goals set by the guidelines and protocols established by the American Diabetes Association or other similar organizations.
4. what are the different levels of diabetes?
Prediabetes: (fasting blood glucose of 100-125 mg/dL or A1C of 5.7-6.4%)
Diabetes: FPG ≥126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) , A1C ≥6.5 %. or 2-hour plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) on OGTT or In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis, a random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L).
Diabetes with complications.
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